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George Duncan, Ph.D.

George Duncan
Adjunct Professor
Dept. of Biological Sciences
(954) 831-6147


  • Florida Int'l. University (Biology) Ph.D.
  • Florida Atlantic University (Chemistry) M.S.
  • University of Miami (ACS Chemistry) B.S.

 Area(s) of research:

 My research deals with polymorphism and genome structure, recombination, DNA fingerprinting, satellite structure and their evolution.

Statement of teaching philosophy:

As a teacher, my primary goal is to stimulate interest, to inspire learning. More specifically, as a scientist I introduce students to a body of facts and concepts. I ask them to consider all of this material as tentative, material to be viewed critically through the lens of the scientific method. I also introduce science in the sense of community and encourage students to think of themselves as members of the community who should be active citizens, not onlookers. Methodologically, I seek a balance in my courses between lecturing to students and asking them to make discoveries. I encourage students to engage with the topic at hand, and recognize that I am often sowing the seeds of confusion which they will have to harvest with me and with each other in the belief that good teaching depends upon intellectual exchange. My approach to student assessment is directed at mastery of a body of knowledge without a lot of rote memorization and demonstration of the ability to use the scientific method to organize facts and concepts, identify unknowns and suggest possible experimental roads into solutions.


Joana Antunes, Deborah S.B.S. Silva · Kuppareddi Balamurugan · George Duncan · Clarice S Alho · Bruce McCord. Forensic discrimination of vaginal epithelia by DNA methylation analysis through pyrosequencing , Electrophoresis, 2016,

Antunes, Joana, Deborah SBS Silva, Kuppareddi Balamurugan, George Duncan, Clarice S. Alho, and Bruce McCord. "High-resolution melt analysis of DNA methylation to discriminate semen in biological stains." Analytical biochemistry 494 (2016): 40-45.

Silva, Deborah SBS, Joana Antunes, Kuppareddi Balamurugan, George Duncan, Clarice S. Alho, and Bruce McCord. "Developmental validation studies of epigenetic DNA methylation markers for the detection of blood, semen and saliva samples." Forensic Science International: Genetics 23 (2016): 55-63.

Antunes J, Silva DS, Balamurugan K, Duncan G, Alho CS, McCord B., High-resolution melt analysis of DNA methylation to discriminate semen in biological stains. Anal Biochem. 2016 Feb 1;494:40-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ab.2015.10.002. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Book Chapter; Tissue-Specific DNA Methylation Patterns in Forensic Samples Detected by Pyrosequencing® ,Springer Science+Business Media New York, to be released 2015

Deborah Soares Bispo Santos Silva, Joana Antunes, Kuppareddi Balamurugan, George Duncan, Clarice Sampaio Alho, Bruce McCord,“Evaluation of DNA methylation markers and their potential to predict human aging”, Accepted for publication in The Journal Electrophoresis, 2015

Kuppareddi Balamurugan, Robin Bombardi, George Duncan, Bruce McCord: “Identification of spermatozoa by tissue-specific differential DNA methylation using bisulfite modification and pyrosequencing” The Journal Electrophoresis 2014, 35, 3079–3086.

Pomeroy RS, Balamurugan K, Wong H, Duncan G, “High Resolution Melt Analysis of the Minisatellite D1S80: A Potential Forensic Screening Tool” The Journal Electrophoresis, 2014 Nov;35(21-22):3020-7.

Thompson RE1Duncan GMcCord BRJ Forensic Sci. An investigation of PCR inhibition using Plexor(®) -based quantitative PCR and short tandem repeat amplification. Journal of Forensic Science 2014 Nov;59(6):1517-29.

Madi T, Balamurugan K, Bombardi R, Duncan G, McCord B. The determination of tissue-specific DNA methylation patterns in forensic biofluids using bisulfite modification and pyrosequencing. Electrophoresis. 2012 Jul; 33(12):1736-45

Balamurugan K, Tracy ML, Heine U, Maha GC, Duncan GT. Mutation at the human D1S80 minisatellite locus, Scientific World Journal. 2012; 212:917235. Epub 2012 May 3.

Balamurugan K, Duncan G. Y chromosome STR allelic and haplotype diversity in a Rwanda population from East Central Africa. Leg Med (Tokyo) 2012 Mar; 14(2):105-9. Epbu 2012 Jan 28.

Balamurugan K, Kanthimathi S, Vijaya M, Suhasini G, Duncan G, Tracey M, Budowle B., Genetic variation of 15 autosomal microsatellite loci in a Tamil population from Tamil Nadu, Southern India, Leg Med (Tokyo). 2010 Aug 31. [Epub ahead of print] View entire paper.

Balamurugan K, Pomeroy R, Duncan G, Tracey M., Investigating SNPs flanking the D1S80 locus in a Tamil population from India., Hum Biol. 2010 Apr;82(2):221-6. View entire paper.

Kuppareddi Balamurugan, G. Suhasini, M. Vijaya, S. Kanthimathi, Nicole Mullins, Martin Tracey, George Duncan, Y chromosome STR allelic and haplotype diversity in five ethnic Tamil populations from Tamil Nadu, India, (2010) Published on-line 7-14-2010. View entire paper

Kuppareddi Balamurugan, RPomeroy, and G Duncan,High resolution melting (HRM) analysis, (2010) submitted for publication.

Heather E. LaSalle, George Duncan, Bruce McCord, An Analysis of Single and Multi-Copy Methods for DNA Analysis by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, (2010) Forensic Sci Int Genet. Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print]. View entire paper

Robert Pomeroy, George Duncan, Bulbin Reeder, Elen Ortenberg, Melba Ketchum, Hannah Wasiluk, and Dennis Reeder (2009) A Low Cost, High-Throughput, Automated, SNP Assay for Forensic Human DNA Applications, Anal Biochem. 2009 Dec 1;395(1):61-7. Epub 2009 Jul 3..

Rene J. Herrera, Leslie R. Adrien, Luis M. Ruiz, Nahir Y. Sanabria, George Duncan (2004) D1S80 A Single-Locus Discrimination Among African Populations , Human Biology, Feb., 2004, vol. 76, no. 1, 87-108.

Duncan, G.T., Tracey, M.L. Stauffer, E.(2003). Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, Edited by S.H. James and J.J. Nordby, chapter entitled: Techniques of DNA Analysis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 221-250.

Kuppareddi Balamurugan, N. Prabakaran, M.Sc., George Duncan,Bruce Budowle, Mohammad Tahir, and Martin Tracey (2001): Allele frequencies of 13 STR loci and D1S80 locus in a Tamil population from Madras, India. J Forensic Sci. 2001 Nov;46(6):1515-7.

Brown, R.J., Rowold, D., Herrera, R.J., Tahir, M., Barna, C., Duncan, G.T. (2000): Distribution of the HLA-DQA1 and Polymarker alleles in the Basque population of Spain, Forensic Sci Int:108:145-151

Tahir, M.A, Herrera, R.J., Khan, A.A., Kashyap,V.K., Duncan,G., Barna, C., Budowle,B., Rowold,D.J., Amjad,M., Sinha,S. (2000) Distribution of HLA-DQA1, CSFF1PO, vWA, THO1, tpox, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, AND D5S818 alleles in East Bengali and West Punjabi populations from indo-pak subcontinent, J Forensic Sci:45(6):1320-1323.

Balamurugan, K., Abdel-Rehman, H., Duncan, G.T., Budowle, B., Anderson, S., Macechko, J., Tahir, T., (1998): Distribution of D1S80 alleles in the Jordanian population. Int. J Legal Med. 111:276-277.

Duncan, G.T., Balamurugan, K., Budowle, B., Smerick, J., and Tracey, M. (1996): Microvariation at the human locus D1S80. Int. J Legal Med. 110:150-154.

Duncan, G.T., (1996): Collection and Analysis of DNA Evidence. The Texas Prosecutor, The Official Journal of the Texas District & County Attorneys Association. 26:13-15.

Duncan, G.T., Tracey, M.L. (1996). Introduction to Forensic Sciences, 2nd Edition, chapter entitled: Serology and DNA typing. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 233-293.

Duncan, G.T., Balamurugan, K., Budowle, B., and Tracey, M. (1996): Hinf I/ Tsp509 I and BsoF I polymorphisms in the flanking regions of the human VNTR locus D1S80. Genetic Analysis: Biomolecular Engineering, 13: 119-121.

Duncan, G.T., Thomas, E., Gallo, J.C., Baird, L.S., Garrison, J., Herrera, R.J. (1996): Human phylogenetic relationships according to the D1S80 locus. Genetica, 98:277-287.

Novick, G.E., Novick, C.C., Yunis, J., Yunis, E., Martinez, K., Duncan, G., Troup, G.M., Deininger, P.L., Stoneking, M., Batzer, M.A. and Herrera, R.J. (1995) Polymorphic human specific Alu insertions as markers for human identification. Electrophoresis 16:1596‑1601.

Sovinski, S. M., Baird, L. S., Budowle, B., Caruso, J. F., Cheema, D. P. S., Duncan, G. T., Hamby, P. P., Masibay, A. S., Sharma, V. K., and Tahir, M. A. (1996). Development of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) database for Punjabis in East Punjab, India. Forensic Sci. Int. 79, 187-198.

Novick, G.E., Menendez, C.M., Novick, C.C., Duncan, G.T., Yunis, J., Yunis, E., Deininger, P.L., Batzer, M.A., Herrera, R.J. (1994): The Use of Polymorphic Alu Insertions as a New Methodological Alternative in Human Paternity Testing and Child Identification. International Pediatrics 9, 60-68.

Duncan, G. T., Noppinger, K., Carey, J., Tracey, M. (1993): Comparison of VNTR Allele Frequencies and Inclusion Probabilities Over Six Populations. Genetica, 88, 51-57.

Noppinger, K., Duncan, G. T., Ferraro, D., Watson, S., Ban, J. (1992): Evaluation of DNA Probe Removal from Nylon Membrane. BioTechniques 13, 572-575.

Watson, S.M., Ban J.D., Duncan, G.T., Noppinger, K.E., Saxner, D.J. (1992): Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of zoo animals using Hae III and four single-locus probes. Appl. & Theoret. Electrophor. 3, 109-114.

Duncan, G.T., Seiden, H., Vallee, L., Ferraro, D, (1986) Effects of Superglue, Other Fingerprint Developing Agents and Luminol on Bloodstain Analysis, American Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 69: 677-680.

Seiden, H., Duncan, G.T., (1983) Presumptive Screening Test for Seminal Acid Phosphatase Using Sodium Thymolphthalein Monophosphate, American Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 66: 207-209.

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